Bunkai (translated from Japanese means «analysis») If you analyze literally, the «bun» means divide, «Kai» — to explain) — a term revealing the combat application of kata movements. Unlike kata, where all movements are formalized bunkai relatively free, and every movement may be interpreted in different ways. Try to understand what all the same to study the bunkai.
Karate as an art can be divided into three branches: kihon, kata and Kumite.
Kihon (in Japanese means «basics») is a technique without a partner. In kyone is practicing basic blocks, punches, etc. This is the primary and most important element of karate, not having mastered that move on to learning the kata or kihon pointless.
Kata (no translation into Russian language, but you can understand the term as «shadow Boxing») — straw of a certain sequence of movements with a clear temporary regulations. Though kata is an imaginary fight with a shadow, but still requires precise execution of elements of kihon (struts, shocks, and blocks). You could even say that kata is a kind of kihon in motion.
Kumite (translated from Japanese to mean «fight») — a term that includes all types of sparring (training free). Training varieties of Kumite such as gohon-Kumite, Sanbon-Kumite, and kihon-IPPON Kumite have a strict set of actions attacking/defending, as well as the requirements of the canonical execution struts and shocks/blocks. Another type of Kumite, for example, Ju-IPPON Kumite (or free sparring) does not require the strict implementation of the stands, and the battle close to the real, although for this kind of sparring and there is a formal set of techniques attack-protection.
So, back to the concept of Bunkai. Contrary to some popular belief, every movement in Kata is a real fighting movement. It’s either a block or strike. The same movement can be in different situations are treated differently. Some opponents of karate claim that kata is useless set of beautiful movements, not suitable for real combat situation. However, in reality, the Cat learns to associate the elements of Kihon together, combine them and apply. A simple example of real use of khat: a departure from the gripping hands of the kata Sandan Hean. Check, because this method really works (see for 5 min).
Regarding the view that the martial arts are evolving, and therefore the bunkai must also undergo changes. Yes, this is partly true. But only partly! Since the introduction of karate to the present time has not changed human physiology, neither the principles of warfare (meaning of course only melee without a weapon). However, indeed, we can observe a certain number of changes in karate throughout its history. Be a new kata, new views on bunkai. But! Along with this it is important to avoid changing the fundamentals of karate such as kihon or basic kata (Heany, Bassai, Kanku, Tekki and all those that studied up to 5th Dan) or Kumite training. The basis of karate should be the same. With a deviation of karate in the direction of the sport also came the view that it has ceased to be a combat. Yes, indeed the sport battles are very far from the real fight, but not to be confused with hot sour, it’s one thing sports, the other — the struggle for life. And the fact that in real sparring, we do not observe honed racks and canonically correct hits does not mean that karate doesn’t work here. Testing stands and strikes in karate serves a slightly different purpose, namely <strong>remove all unnecessary</strong>. Off from the unnecessary movements of muscles and ligaments, so your seemingly simple kick gets destructive force. The same applies to blocks. The basic principle of karate icken hisatsu (one punch on the spot), not in vain has always been his main slogan.
And in the end, You will find a very good selection for some Bunkai kata:
Karate in the framework of self-defense is the most common weapon, the same as a spear or a sword. And, if your karate does not work, then you have not yet mastered it at the proper level.